The Football’s InfluencE on Lifelong health and Dementia risk (FIELD) study, based at Glasgow University and supported by The Football Association and The Professional Footballers’ Association, found that former Scottish professional football players tend to be over 3.5 times more like to die with dementia, and over 5 times more likely to die with Alzheimer’s Disease, than the general population. Mortality with Parkinson’s Disease is 2 times higher in ex-players.
Dementia in football: Ex-players three and a half times more likely to die of condition. London: BBC Sport / BBC Health News, October 21st 2019.
Football and dementia: former players over five times more likely to die of Alzheimer’s, says landmark study. [Online]: Drake Foundation, October 21st 2019.
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Mackay, DF. Russell, ER. [and] Stewart, K. [et al] (2019). Neurodegenerative disease mortality among former professional soccer players. New England Journal of Medicine. October 21st 2019. [Epub ahead of print].
There is a list of related Glasgow Brain Injury Research Group publications.