The latest estimates from Public Health England (PHE) indicate that up to five million people in England could be at risk of developing type-2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes (which is related to obesity and diet) costs the NHS between £8 billion to £10 billion each year. Type-2 diabetes affects roughly 3.2 million people in the UK. Diabetes is thought to cause 22,000 premature deaths per year in addition to accounting for perhaps 10% of the entire NHS budget.
Hughes, D. (2015). Five million adults in England ‘at risk of diabetes’. London: BBC Health News, August 26th 2015.
This relates to the analysis from the National Cardiovascular Intelligence Network (NCVIN) in support of the PHE, NHS England and Diabetes UK’s NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme (NHS DPP):
NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme (NHS DPP): non-diabetic hyperglycaemia. Produced by: National Cardiovascular Intelligence Network (NCVIN). London: Public Health England, August 26th 2015.
Five million people at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. London: Public Health England, August 26th 2015.
A related commentary from NHS England:
Preventing Type 2 Diabetes: the size of the prize – Dr Matt Kearney. London: NHS England, September 1st 2015.
Evidence-Base: Assessment of the Effectiveness of Lifestyle Interventions for the Prevention of T2DM
The following report updates a previous PHE systematic review and meta-analysis which assesses the effectiveness of interventions for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in high risk populations:
Ashra, NB. Spong, R. [and] Carter, P. [et al] (2015). A systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the effectiveness of pragmatic lifestyle interventions for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in routine practice. London: Public Health England, August 25th 2015.
Beating Diabetes in Bradford (NHS Right Care)
The following NHS Right Care report covers Bradford City CCG’s initiative to improve diabetes prevention locally using evidence-based methods:
Allen, L. [and] Wallace, V. (2015). NHS Bradford City CCG: improving the detection and prevention of Type 2 diabetes – Bradford Beating Diabetes (BBD). [London / Yorkshire]: NHS Right Care, August 20th 2015.
US Position on Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support
A diabetes education algorithm from the United States specifies how diabetes self-management education and support should be provided for adults with Type 2 Diabetes.
Powers, MA. Bardsley, J. [and] Cypress, M. [et al] (2015). Diabetes self-management education and support in Type 2 Diabetes: a joint position statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Diabetes Care. July 2015; 38(7): 1372-82.
Association Between Smoking Cessation and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Stopping smoking can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Analysis of 88 studies on smoking risk and type 2 diabetes indicates that current smokers are about 1.4 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes compared with non-smokers. The risk of developing diabetes does rise slightly (to about 1.5 times) for several years after quitting smoking, but it falls to 1.2 times after five years of smoking cessation.
Smoking ‘risk factor for type 2 diabetes’. London: BBC Health News, September 18th 2015.
This relates to:
Full Text Link (Note: This article requires a suitable Athens password, a journal subscription or payment for access).
Naveed, S. Sorensen, T. [and] Taylor, AE. [et al] (2015). Smoking and diabetes risk: building a causal case with clinical implications. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. September 17th 2015.
In the News (Generally)
Recent pieces from BBC News:
Regarding Type I Diabetes
The NHS is involved in testing a blood sugar monitor able to track blood sugar levels continuously and which can stay in the body for up to five months. This new generation of continuous blood-sugar sensors / monitors is able to transmit information to the user’s smartphone and thereby help to control type 1 diabetes.
Gallagher, J. (2015). Blood sugar monitor tested on diabetes patients. London: BBC Health News, August 30th 2015.
“…just 2% of patients with Type 1 Diabetes in England were getting Freestyle Libre on GP prescription, compared with 11% in Scotland, 16% in Wales, and 35% in Northern Ireland”.
People with type 1 diabetes ‘missing out on life-changing glucose monitors’. London: BBC Health News, November 8th 2018.
Postcode lottery problem solved from April 2019:
Diabetes glucose monitors ‘available to thousands more’. London: BBC Health News, November 14th 2018.
Weight Loss Surgery (for T2DM)
Weight loss surgery appears to be an effective treatment for a half of patients with type-2 diabetes, for at least five years:
Gallagher, J. (2015). Weight loss surgery ‘cures half of type-2 diabetes cases’. London: BBC Health News, September 4th 2015.
Roberts, M. (2015). Weight loss surgery ‘cuts risk’ of diabetes and heart attacks. London: BBC Health News, December 23rd 2015.
Healthier You: the NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme
More recent information is available.
Screening for Type 2 Diabetes in the NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme (September 2017 Update)
An estimated 1.7 million people in England at highest risk of developing type 2 diabetes could be prioritised for recruitment onto NHS lifestyle change programmes.
“This approach is a cost-effective way of managing an illness that currently costs the NHS around £8.8 billion a year”. Prof. Mark Baker (NICE).
Type 2 diabetes plan targets those at high risk. London: BBC Health News, September 15th 2017.
This relates to:
Type 2 diabetes: prevention in people at high risk (PH38). London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, July 2012 [Updated September 2017].
There is an associated online NICE Pathways version.
November 2018 Update
Low-calorie diet treatment trial introduced by NHS England, alongside increases in scale to the Diabetes Prevention Programme:
Hughes, D. (2017). Type 2 diabetes: NHS to offer 800-calorie diet treatment. London: BBC Health News, November 30th 2018.
February 2020 Update
About two million people in England may be at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. More statistics:
“Around nine out of 10 people with diabetes have Type 2 and there were over a million obesity diagnoses in hospital admissions last year, 884,000 the year before… Projections show that the growing number of people with diabetes could result in nearly 39,000 extra people suffering a heart attack in 2035, over 50,000 experiencing a stroke, while one in six hospital beds is now occupied by someone with diabetes”.
Record high two million people at risk of Type 2 Diabetes. [Online]: NHS England, February 24th 2020.